thickener criteria of settling rate

Measuring Settling Rates and Calculating Thickener Capacity

Mar 03, 2016 · The following is an illustration of the method used in computing the area and depth required in a thickener to handle 100 tons of pulp per day, thickening from 6 parts fluid to 1 part solids down to 1.12 parts fluid to 1 part solids. Fig.7- Slime-Settling

How to Size a Thickener - Mineral Processing & Metallurgy

Mar 08, 2016 · A = Thickener area in square feet per ton of dry solids thickened in 24 hours. F = Initial density (Parts Water to Sol­ids by weight). D = Final density to which pulp will settle or density at which you want to discharge pulp from thickener. R = Settling rate in feet per hour.

Biosolids Technology Fact Sheet Gravity Thickening

Gravity thickener designs usually include circular tanks, 3-4 m (10-13 ft) deep and up to 25 m (82 ft) in diameter. The dimensions are based on prediction of settling due to gravity alone. To assist solids transport, gravity thickener bottoms are constructed with a floor slope between 1:6 and 1:3.

(PDF) THICKENER DESIGN, CONTROL AND DEVELOPMENT

between particles become signifi cant and the solids settling rate red uces as these ... the actual thickener design is a compromise between these criteria. ... Like the High Rate thickener, ...

Settling Rate - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The spin settling rate test determines the impact of the g-forces on the separation. This test is normally conducted in a bench-top test tube spinner that can produce up to 1000 Gs. The critical time is a 90-s spin for separation. If there is good separation (and this

CHAPTER 3 SLUDGE THICKENING - Marmara

activity. A well operated thickener will have a solids recovery of about 95% [3]. Design of Thickeners The thickening process takes place in a settling tank with long-enough solids retention time. For example in secondary clarifiers of activated sludge systems both

Beginners guide to thickeners - Outotec

Jun 16, 2017 · The measurable parameters that can be used for thickener control include thickener feed flow rate, feed density, underflow density, overflow clarity, bed level, bed mass, rake torque, rake height, solids settling rate and underflow rehology. Rake torque.

Chapter 5 Sludge treatment - Islamic University of Gaza

0Design a gravity thickener to treat a combined primary and activated sludge. The following data is given:- Primary sludge:- 500 / , 1100 , 5% 3 3 S m kg QP m d SL Secondary sludge (activated sludge):- 150 / , 1040 , 1% 3 3 S m kg Qs m d SL Thickener design criteria:- - LS = solids loading rate = 50 kg/m2.d (assumed)

4 x Flowrate 4 x 200 π Riserate - MIP Process

The following is a short cut to designing your own thickener: (a) Size of Thickener As a first stab we can either use the thickener flux (m. 2 /tpd) or the rise rate, depending if solids loading is the dominant (eg. Platinum Tailings) or feed flow rate (e.g. Clarification or low feed solids).

(PDF) Understanding the Thickening Process

the operation of the thickener is limited by permeability alone in that any enhancement in the permeability of. 6 Paste 2006, Limerick, Ireland. Understanding the Thickening Process B.J. Gladman ...

SETTLING VELOCITY OF PARTICLES

maxima, as at very low concentration settling rate is constant, and at high concentration the rate decreases rapidly. • Transport flux, Gt,Fluxof solids carried by liquid, is independent of the solids settling in the thickener, whether the solids settle or not, there

Using State Point Analysis to Maximize Secondary Clarifier ...

Where: VS is the settling velocity and x is the TSS concentration of the sludge. VO (the initial settling velocity) and k (the settling rate) are defined by the settling characteristics of the sludge. In the example above, the values of VO and k are 6.98 in/min and –0.0006 L/g, respectively.

Lesson10: Sludge Digestion and Solids Handling

The thickening tank is equipped with slowly moving vertical paddles built like a picket fence. Sludge is usually pumped continuously from the settling tank to the thickener which has a low overflow rate so that the excess water overflows and the sludge solids concentrate in the bottom.

Advanced thickener control - Outotec

Jun 13, 2017 · Dilute solutions very often give better results however over dilution will increase the up flow rate overriding the benefits of the enhanced settling rate. In most thickeners’ it is possible to check the efficiency of flocculation through sample observation by sampling the

Thickener sizing and the importance of testwork ...

Mar 23, 2010 · Thickener sizing methods . Depending on the stage of the project, and whether or not samples of indicative feed material are available, a number of different methods can be used to determine thickener sizing. In general, these can be classified as: rule of thumb sizing, cylinder settling tests, and, lastly, dynamic thickener testwork.

CFD simulation of tailings slurry thickening in a gravity ...

The settling rate of particles is evaluated by axial velocity in the thickener body. Fig. 14 shows the distribution of particle axial velocity as a function a nondimensionalized height. It can be seen that particles larger than a certain size (i.e. 41.13 μm) exhibit much higher axial velocity and thus a better settling performance, while small ...

Chapter 5 Sludge treatment - Islamic University of Gaza

0Design a gravity thickener to treat a combined primary and activated sludge. The following data is given:- Primary sludge:- 500 / , 1100 , 5% 3 3 S m kg QP m d SL Secondary sludge (activated sludge):- 150 / , 1040 , 1% 3 3 S m kg Qs m d SL Thickener design criteria:- - LS = solids loading rate = 50 kg/m2.d (assumed)

Thickeners | McLanahan

Thickeners should be viewed as a continuous settling and thickening process. When the Thickener is in a steady state, the solids are being withdrawn at the same rate as which they are being fed. Therefore, a principle of mass in equal to the mass out should be observed, and instruments for measuring both the feed, as well as the underflow ...

4 x Flowrate 4 x 200 π Riserate - MIP Process

The following is a short cut to designing your own thickener: (a) Size of Thickener As a first stab we can either use the thickener flux (m. 2 /tpd) or the rise rate, depending if solids loading is the dominant (eg. Platinum Tailings) or feed flow rate (e.g. Clarification or low feed solids).

(PDF) Understanding the Thickening Process

the operation of the thickener is limited by permeability alone in that any enhancement in the permeability of. 6 Paste 2006, Limerick, Ireland. Understanding the Thickening Process B.J. Gladman ...

CHAPTER 6: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SLUDGE

Thus, anaerobic digestion has its importance. The solids recovery rate varies at each stage of sludge treatment and is shown in Table 6.3. Table 6.3 Example of solids recovery rate in each treatment stage Source: Guideline and Manual for Planning and Design in Japan, JSWA, 2009 6.2 HYDRAULICS OF SLUDGE PIPELINES 6.2.1 Sludge Piping

TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS FOR EFFLUENT TREATMENT

Fundamentals of concentrated suspensions settling-thickening 2.3.- Utility and applicability 2.3.- Design 2.3.1.- Design parameters 2.3.2.- Design criteria 2.4.- Specific technical considerations 2.5.- Expected results 2.6.- Operating problems ... Hydraulic loading rate: it

Solids Production and Thickening Options

respectively. Co-thickening is mostly done in small facilities where they can reduce the number of mechanical equipment components. Since the design criteria are the same regardless of whether co-thickening or separate thickening is used, there are no savings in the number of thickening units for large facilities such as the RWQCP.

thickener bed mass instrumentation installation drawings

Beginners Guide to Thickeners Outotec. INSTRUMENTATION. The measurable parameters that can be used for thickener control include thickener feed flow rate feed density underflow density overflow clarity bed level bed mass rake torque rake height solids settling rate and underflow rehology.

Thickener - metengineer

Thickener Sizing Calculator valid for settling thickeners, high rate thickeners, and clarrifiers. Exit Thickener Calculator. Process Input. Parameters. Value Units. Solids Feed: [t/h] Overflow Flowrate: [m3/h] Settling Properties. Parameters. Value.

Mining Thickener Optimisation | Maximing Mining Throughput

Jul 13, 2021 · The results showed that the settling rate improved significantly and was aligned with process requirements. Insight was gained that feed slurry without dilution is inadequate for operation. “These tests clearly highlight the effect of dilution on thickener feed slurry, and the important role that it plays in solids settling.

Thickening and Dewatering - WEF Home

• Disc thickeners • Volute thickeners The advantages and disadvantages of thickener types should be considered when selecting equipment. Table 1 gives an overview of the most common mechanical thickening devices and their relative operational parameters. (See note at end of fact sheet.) Parameter Drum Thickener Gravity Belt Thickener Thickening

(PDF) Thickener Waste Management in Mineral Processing To ...

To determine the area of the thickener increase the sedimentation rate and the water clarity. settling, they suggested that a series of batch settling tests Increasing the concentration of solids in the feed (up to 25 should be performed at different initial concentrations.

Process Design Criteria - UCL Elevation - INFRASTRUCTURE ...

Nov 04, 2014 · Table 17-16: Thickening and Filtering Areas Design Criteria—Tailings Thickener . Area Item/Rate . Settling rate 0.26 t/h/m2 Underflow discharge density 65% solids w/w Flocculent dose rate 3 g/t tail Utilization 93% Table 17-17: Thickening and Filtering Areas

TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEETS FOR EFFLUENT TREATMENT

Fundamentals of concentrated suspensions settling-thickening 2.3.- Utility and applicability 2.3.- Design 2.3.1.- Design parameters 2.3.2.- Design criteria 2.4.- Specific technical considerations 2.5.- Expected results 2.6.- Operating problems ... Hydraulic loading rate: it

SEDIMENTATION

Thickener design involves the application of one of a number of alternative models together with jar test data, and is based either on the combined Kynch (1952) and Coe and Clevenger (1916) analysis of settling rates or the Yoshioka (1957) flux analysis.

Instrumentation and Control of Sedimentation Equipment

height, bed level, bed pressure, feed rate and density, underflow rate and density, settling rate, and overflow turbidity. Many of these are easily measured, while some can be difficult. Combining these signals into a coherent control strategy requires forethought and an understanding of the fundamentals of thickener operation.

Design and Operation of Final Clarifiers

Type III settling is the predominant mecha-nism in secon d a ry cl a ri f i ers and govern s design,although Types I,II,and IV settling may also occur to a limited extent. Functions of a Clarifier The final clarifier must perform two pri-mary functions:clarification and thickening. Clarification is the separation ofsolids from

A description of the sedimentation process during dynamic ...

A description of the sedimentation process during dynamic thickener operation A.J. Vietti and F. Dunn 2 Paste 2014, Vancouver, Canada consolidation theory was applied to the settling of compressible slurries (Shirato et al., 1970) which led

CFD simulation of tailings slurry thickening in a gravity ...

The settling rate of particles is evaluated by axial velocity in the thickener body. Fig. 14 shows the distribution of particle axial velocity as a function a nondimensionalized height. It can be seen that particles larger than a certain size (i.e. 41.13 μm) exhibit much higher axial velocity and thus a better settling performance, while small ...

Inclined Plate Clarifier Design and Sizing Procedure

The Impact of Settling Rate on Inclined Plate Clarifier Design. Determining the hydraulic loading ratio required to meet your effluent requirements (ppm, mg/l) is an important step in the design and sizing of any clarification system. A small change in the hydraulic loading ratio can result in a large change in the size of the specified clarifier.

Thickeners | McLanahan

Thickeners should be viewed as a continuous settling and thickening process. When the Thickener is in a steady state, the solids are being withdrawn at the same rate as which they are being fed. Therefore, a principle of mass in equal to the mass out should be observed, and instruments for measuring both the feed, as well as the underflow ...

Thickeners – MIP Process Technologies (Pty) Ltd

High Rate Thickening is a process whereby mineral particles are flocculated, thoroughly mixed within a feedwell and then injected uniformly into a hindered settling zone in the thickener with largely radial motion. A pre formed hindered settling zone allows horizontal distribution of incoming feed into the settling bed which, at the point of ...

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